salmon oil for dogs benefits

16 Benefits of Salmon Oil For Dogs: Mental, Physical and Nutritional

Salmon oil enriches a dog's diet with essential Omega-3 fatty acids, significantly enhancing their overall health and well-being. This natural supplement plays a critical role in improving cognitive function, heart health, and joint mobility. Specifically, the DHA in salmon oil serves as a structural element in brain tissue, fostering cognitive development and maintaining healthy neuronal membranes. In terms of cardiovascular health, Omega-3 fatty acids effectively reduce triglycerides and cholesterol levels in the bloodstream, thereby lowering the risk of heart disease. Additionally, salmon oil mitigates joint inflammation and maintains flexibility, offering particular benefits for dogs suffering from arthritis.

Salmon oil for dogs is a dietary supplement derived from the oil of salmon, a type of fatty fish. It is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These essential fatty acids play a crucial role in supporting various aspects of a dog's health, including skin and coat condition, joint health, cognitive function, and overall immune system support.

Salmon oil is often used as a supplement to enhance the nutritional profile of a dog's diet, especially in cases where commercial dog food may not provide sufficient omega-3 fatty acids.

There are 16 key benefits of salmon oil for dogs.

Table of Contents

benefits of salmon oil for dogs

1. Improves Brain Function and Enhances Mental Development

Structural Component of Brain Tissue - DHA is a crucial structural component of the brain and plays a vital role in the development and maintenance of neuronal membranes. It is particularly abundant in the grey matter of the brain, where information processing and cognition occur.

Neurotransmitter Function - EPA and DHA contribute to the production of neurotransmitters, which are chemical messengers that transmit signals between nerve cells. Neurotransmitters are essential for proper communication within the nervous system, influencing mood, behaviour, and cognitive function.

Anti-Inflammatory Properties - Omega-3 fatty acids, especially EPA, possess anti-inflammatory properties. Chronic inflammation can negatively impact brain function and contribute to cognitive decline. By reducing inflammation, omega-3s may help maintain a healthier brain environment.

Enhancement of Cognitive Function - DHA, in particular, is associated with improved cognitive function. It has been shown to support learning and memory in various studies. Providing a sufficient amount of DHA during critical stages of brain development, such as in puppies, can have lasting positive effects on cognitive abilities.

Support for Ageing Brains - As dogs age, their cognitive function may decline, leading to conditions such as cognitive dysfunction syndrome (similar to Alzheimer's in humans). Omega-3 fatty acids have been studied for their potential to support cognitive function in ageing dogs and may contribute to maintaining mental acuity.

Neuroprotective Effects - Omega-3 fatty acids may have neuroprotective effects, helping to safeguard nerve cells from damage. This is particularly important in conditions where oxidative stress and free radical damage can impact brain health.

Improved Blood Flow - Omega-3s can positively influence blood flow, which is crucial for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the brain. Adequate blood flow supports overall brain function and helps maintain optimal cognitive performance.

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2. Enhances Glossiness and Texture of Coat

Support for Healthy Hair Follicles - Omega-3 fatty acids support the health of hair follicles, where hair growth originates. Healthy follicles contribute to the growth of strong, lustrous hair, improving the overall texture and appearance of the coat.

Reducing Shedding and Hair Loss - Adequate omega-3 fatty acids can help reduce excessive shedding and hair loss in dogs. This is particularly relevant for breeds prone to shedding or those with seasonal shedding patterns. A reduction in shedding can contribute to a thicker and shinier coat.

Enhancing Natural Oils - Omega-3 fatty acids help regulate the production of natural oils in the skin, known as sebum. This regulation ensures that the coat remains properly conditioned, preventing it from becoming too oily or too dry.

Promoting a Glossy and Shiny Coat - The combined effects of moisturising the skin, reducing inflammation, supporting hair follicles, and improving the overall health of the coat contribute to a glossy and shiny appearance. A healthy coat reflects light more effectively, resulting in a lustrous sheen.

3. Improves Digestive Health

Maintaining Mucosal Integrity - The mucosal lining of the digestive tract plays a crucial role in nutrient absorption and protection against pathogens. Omega-3 fatty acids support the integrity of the mucosal lining, helping to prevent damage and maintain a healthy barrier between the digestive system and the rest of the body.

Support for a Balanced Microbiome - Omega-3s can influence the composition and balance of the gut microbiome. A healthy gut microbiome is essential for proper digestion, nutrient absorption, and overall digestive health. Salmon oil may contribute to a more balanced and diverse microbial community in the intestines.

Enhancing Nutrient Absorption - A healthy balance of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids can enhance the absorption of nutrients in the digestive tract. Improved nutrient absorption is crucial for overall health, as it ensures that dogs receive the necessary vitamins, minerals, and other essential nutrients from their diet.

Reducing Gastrointestinal Inflammation - Inflammatory conditions in the digestive tract can lead to issues such as diarrhoea, vomiting, or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids may help alleviate these symptoms and promote a more comfortable digestive experience for dogs.

Regulating Bowel Movements - Omega-3 fatty acids can contribute to the regulation of bowel movements. For dogs with constipation or irregular bowel habits, the inclusion of salmon oil in the diet may help promote more regular and healthy bowel movements.

4. Reduces or Eliminates Dry Skin

Moisturising Properties - Omega-3 fatty acids in salmon oil have moisturising properties that can benefit the skin from the inside out. These fatty acids help to maintain the natural lipid barrier of the skin, preventing excessive water loss and keeping the skin hydrated.

Regulation of Sebum Production - Sebum is the natural oil produced by the sebaceous glands in the skin. Omega-3 fatty acids help regulate sebum production, ensuring that the skin is neither too oily nor too dry. This balance contributes to healthier skin and coat conditions.

Support for the Skin Barrier - Omega-3s support the integrity of the skin barrier, which is essential for protecting the skin against environmental stressors and preventing moisture loss. Studies (1) show that a strong and intact skin barrier helps retain hydration and reduces the likelihood of dryness and flakiness.

Promotion of Cell Membrane Health - DHA, another omega-3 fatty acid found in salmon oil, is a key component of cell membranes. Healthy cell membranes are essential for maintaining the structural integrity of skin cells, promoting elasticity, and preventing dehydration.

5. Boosts Immune System

Regulation of Immune Responses - Omega-3 fatty acids play a role in regulating immune responses. They can help enhance the function of immune cells, including white blood cells, which are critical for identifying and fighting off pathogens. A well-regulated immune response ensures that the body can effectively defend against infections while avoiding unnecessary inflammation.

Enhancement of Antioxidant Defences - Omega-3 fatty acids have antioxidant properties that help neutralise free radicals in the body. Free radicals can damage cells and compromise the immune system. By boosting antioxidant defences, salmon oil supports the immune system in maintaining optimal function.

Improvement in Phagocytosis - Phagocytosis is a process where immune cells engulf and digest foreign particles, such as bacteria and viruses. Omega-3 fatty acids may enhance the efficiency of phagocytosis, improving the dog's ability to eliminate harmful invaders.

Support for Immunoglobulin Production - Immunoglobulins are proteins that play a key role in the immune system's ability to recognise and neutralise pathogens. Omega-3 fatty acids may support the production of immunoglobulins, enhancing the dog's immune response.

Reduction of Autoimmune Responses - Omega-3 fatty acids have been studied for their potential to modulate autoimmune responses. While more research is needed, there is evidence to suggest that these fatty acids may help reduce the risk of autoimmune conditions by promoting immune system balance.

6. Strengthens Heart and Supports Cardiovascular System

Cardioprotective Effects - Studies (3) suggest that Omega-3 fatty acids, especially EPA and DHA, have cardioprotective effects. They have been associated with a lower risk of heart disease by helping to reduce factors such as high blood pressure, inflammation, and blood clot formation.

Reduction of Blood Lipids - Omega-3 fatty acids can help regulate lipid levels in the blood, including reducing levels of triglycerides and cholesterol. Elevated lipid levels are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and maintaining a healthy balance can contribute to heart health.

Maintenance of Blood Vessel Function - EPA and DHA contribute to the maintenance of blood vessel function. They help improve blood vessel elasticity and reduce stiffness, promoting healthy blood flow. This is important for maintaining optimal cardiovascular function and preventing conditions such as atherosclerosis.

Regulation of Blood Pressure - Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to have a modest but beneficial effect on blood pressure regulation. Maintaining healthy blood pressure levels is crucial for reducing the risk of heart disease.

Antiarrhythmic Effects - Omega-3 fatty acids may have antiarrhythmic effects, meaning they can help regulate heart rhythm. This is important for preventing irregular heartbeats, which can be a risk factor for certain cardiovascular conditions.

Reduction of Blood Clotting - Omega-3 fatty acids can help reduce excessive blood clotting, which is important for preventing the formation of clots that can lead to heart attacks or strokes.

Support for Heart Muscle Function - DHA, in particular, is a crucial component of cell membranes and is abundant in heart muscle cells. Ensuring an adequate supply of DHA supports the structural integrity and function of the heart muscle.

Positive Effects on Cardiac Output - Omega-3 fatty acids may positively influence cardiac output, which is the amount of blood the heart pumps per minute. By supporting the heart's efficiency, salmon oil can contribute to overall cardiovascular health.

7. Alleviates Symptoms of Arthritis

Joint Lubrication - Studies (2) suggest that EPA and DHA play a role in the production of joint lubricating fluids. Adequate lubrication is essential for smooth joint movement and can help reduce friction, pain, and stiffness associated with arthritis.

Support for Cartilage Health - Omega-3 fatty acids contribute to the maintenance of healthy cartilage. Cartilage is a connective tissue that cushions the joints, and in arthritis, the breakdown of cartilage can lead to pain and stiffness. Salmon oil helps support the structural integrity of cartilage.

Reduction of Pain and Discomfort - The anti-inflammatory effects of omega-3 fatty acids can result in a reduction of pain and discomfort associated with arthritis. Dogs experiencing less pain are likely to be more mobile and enjoy an improved quality of life.

Inhibition of Enzymes - Omega-3 fatty acids may inhibit enzymes that contribute to the breakdown of cartilage in the joints. By modulating these enzymes, salmon oil helps protect and preserve joint health.

Improved Joint Function - Regular supplementation with salmon oil can lead to improved joint function. Dogs with arthritis may experience enhanced mobility and flexibility, making it easier for them to move, walk, and engage in normal activities.

Enhanced Blood Flow - Omega-3 fatty acids contribute to improved blood flow, promoting the delivery of nutrients and oxygen to joint tissues. Enhanced blood flow supports the healing process and overall joint health.

8. Promotes Bright, Clear Eyes and Better Eyesight

Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Retinal Health - DHA is an essential component of the retina, the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye. The retina is crucial for visual function, and DHA helps maintain its structure and function. Adequate levels of DHA in the diet may support retinal health.

Support for Blood Flow to the Eyes - Omega-3 fatty acids contribute to improved blood flow, including blood flow to the eyes. Adequate blood circulation ensures that the eyes receive the necessary oxygen and nutrients, promoting overall eye health.

Protection Against Age-Related Conditions - The antioxidant properties of omega-3 fatty acids may help protect the eyes from age-related conditions such as cataracts and macular degeneration. While more research is needed, antioxidants play a role in neutralising free radicals that can contribute to these conditions.

Maintenance of Eye Tissues - Omega-3 fatty acids help in the maintenance of various tissues in the eyes, including the cornea and lens. Ensuring the structural integrity of these tissues is important for clear vision.

Reduction of Eye Inflammation - Inflammatory conditions such as conjunctivitis can affect the eyes. The anti-inflammatory effects of salmon oil may help reduce inflammation, promoting a clearer and more comfortable visual experience for dogs.

9. Lowers Inflammation

Balancing Omega-3 to Omega-6 Ratio - In many commercial dog diets, omega-6 fatty acids are more prevalent than omega-3s. An imbalance in the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids can contribute to chronic inflammation. Salmon oil, rich in omega-3s, helps correct this imbalance, reducing the overall inflammatory response in the body.

Inhibition of Pro-Inflammatory Mediators - EPA and DHA interfere with the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes. By inhibiting these compounds, salmon oil helps dampen the inflammatory process, providing relief from inflammation-related conditions.

Resolution of Inflammation - Omega-3 fatty acids contribute to the resolution phase of inflammation. Unlike chronic inflammation, which can be detrimental, acute inflammation is a natural and necessary part of the body's response to injury or infection. Salmon oil helps the body efficiently resolve inflammation once the triggering factor is eliminated.

Reduction of Cytokine Production - Omega-3s have been shown to reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Cytokines are signalling molecules that play a role in the communication between cells of the immune system. Lowering the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines contributes to a less inflammatory environment.

10. Reduces The Symptoms of Allergies

Reduction of Itching and Scratching - Allergic reactions, especially those related to environmental allergens or food sensitivities, can trigger intense itching and scratching in dogs. The anti-inflammatory effects of salmon oil can help alleviate these symptoms, providing relief and improving the dog's overall comfort.

Reduction of Allergic Responses - Omega-3 fatty acids may modulate immune system responses, helping to reduce hypersensitivity reactions that lead to allergies. By supporting a balanced immune response, salmon oil can contribute to managing allergic symptoms.

Lessening Seasonal Allergy Effects - Dogs with seasonal allergies may experience heightened symptoms during certain times of the year. The anti-inflammatory effects of salmon oil can help mitigate the impact of seasonal allergens, providing relief during peak allergy seasons.

11. Increases Male Dog Fertility

Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Sperm Quality - Omega-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are known to be important for overall health, including reproductive health. Some studies suggest that these fatty acids may have a positive impact on sperm quality, including sperm motility and morphology. Healthy sperm with good motility is crucial for successful fertilisation.

Maintenance of Seminal Fluid Quality - Adequate omega-3 fatty acids may contribute to the overall health of seminal fluid. While more research is needed, some studies have suggested that these fatty acids may help maintain the quality of seminal fluid, which is essential for the transport and survival of sperm.

Antioxidant Protection - Omega-3 fatty acids also have antioxidant properties, which can help protect cells, including sperm cells, from oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can damage sperm DNA and impair fertility. Antioxidants contribute to maintaining the integrity of sperm cells.

Regulation of Hormonal Balance - Omega-3 fatty acids play a role in regulating hormonal balance in the body. Hormones such as testosterone are crucial for the development and maturation of sperm. A balanced hormonal environment supports healthy sperm production.

12. Supports Pregnant and Nursing Bitches

Pregnancy

Foetal Brain and Eye Development - DHA, an omega-3 fatty acid present in salmon oil, is crucial for the development of the foetal brain and eyes. Supplementing the diet with DHA during pregnancy supports the growth and health of the developing puppies.

Reduced Risk of Preterm Birth - Omega-3 fatty acids may contribute to a reduced risk of preterm birth and support a full-term pregnancy. Adequate levels of DHA can help ensure proper gestation and development of the puppies.

Support for Maternal Health - Salmon oil provides additional nutritional support to the mother during pregnancy. This is important as the mother's nutritional needs increase to support the developing puppies.

Nursing (Lactation)

Quality of Milk Production - Omega-3 fatty acids in salmon oil can positively influence the composition of milk. The quality of the milk is crucial for the health and development of the nursing puppies. DHA is particularly important for brain and eye development.

Optimal Growth and Development - The nutritional content of the mother's milk is directly influenced by her diet. Salmon oil, with its omega-3 fatty acids, contributes to the optimal growth and development of the puppies during the nursing period.

Balancing Energy Needs - Nursing mothers have increased energy requirements. Salmon oil provides a nutrient-dense source of energy, helping the mother meet her nutritional demands during lactation.

13. Helps Anxious Dogs

Regulation of Neurotransmitters - Omega-3 fatty acids are essential components of cell membranes, including those in the brain. DHA, in particular, is abundant in the brain and plays a role in neurotransmitter function. Balanced neurotransmitter activity is important for regulating mood, and disruptions in these pathways can contribute to anxiety.

Stress Response Regulation - Omega-3 fatty acids may modulate the stress response in the body. Stress can exacerbate anxiety, and by influencing the body's response to stressors, salmon oil may help dogs cope with anxiety-inducing situations more effectively.

Enhancement of Serotonin Levels - Serotonin is a neurotransmitter associated with feelings of well-being and happiness. Omega-3 fatty acids, particularly EPA, have been linked to the synthesis and release of serotonin. An increase in serotonin levels may have a calming effect on anxious dogs.

Positive Effects on Behaviour - While more research is needed, there is evidence to suggest that supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids may have positive effects on behaviour in dogs. This includes improvements in sociability and adaptability, which are relevant to managing anxiety.

14. Slows The Development of Cancer

Inhibition of Tumour Angiogenesis - Some studies (4) suggest that omega-3 fatty acids may inhibit the process of angiogenesis, which is the formation of new blood vessels to supply nutrients to tumours. Restricting blood vessel formation can impede the growth and spread of cancer cells.

Enhancement of Apoptosis - Apoptosis is a process of programmed cell death, and its dysregulation can contribute to cancer development. Omega-3 fatty acids may play a role in promoting apoptosis in cancer cells, preventing their uncontrolled growth.

Reduction in Cell Proliferation - Omega-3 fatty acids have been associated with a reduction in cell proliferation, the rapid division and growth of cells. In the context of cancer, slowing down cell proliferation may help inhibit the development of tumours.

Immune System Modulation - Omega-3 fatty acids can modulate the immune system, potentially enhancing the body's ability to recognise and destroy cancer cells. A well-functioning immune system is crucial for surveillance against cancerous cells.

Enhancement of Chemotherapy Effects - While more research is needed, there is some evidence to suggest that omega-3 fatty acids may enhance the effectiveness of certain chemotherapy drugs. This may potentially improve the outcome of cancer treatment in dogs.

Reduction in Oxidative Stress - Omega-3 fatty acids have antioxidant properties, which can help reduce oxidative stress. High levels of oxidative stress can contribute to cellular damage and may play a role in cancer development. Antioxidants help neutralise free radicals and protect cells from damage.

15. Helps Dogs Gain Weight Healthily

Calorie Density - While salmon oil itself is not high in calories, it can be added to a dog's diet to enhance the overall calorie density of their meals. This can be particularly useful for dogs that need to gain weight. However, it's important to balance the caloric increase with the dog's overall energy needs and avoid excessive caloric intake.

High-Quality Protein - Salmon oil is derived from salmon, which is a good source of high-quality protein. Protein is essential for muscle development, and a diet rich in quality protein supports healthy weight gain by promoting muscle mass rather than fat.

Appetite Stimulation - The palatability of salmon oil can make it an attractive addition to a dog's food, potentially stimulating their appetite. Dogs that find their meals more appetising may be more inclined to eat larger portions, aiding in weight gain.

Enhanced Nutrient Absorption - The presence of healthy fats in salmon oil can enhance the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamins A, D, and E. These vitamins are important for overall health and can contribute to a dog's ability to gain weight healthily.

16. Provides Essential Vitamins, Minerals and Fatty Acids

Salmon oil is a rich source of essential nutrients, including vitamins, minerals, and fatty acids, that are beneficial for a dog's overall health.

1. Omega-3 Fatty Acids
EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid) and DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid): These omega-3 fatty acids are crucial for a variety of physiological functions. They play a significant role in supporting heart health, reducing inflammation, promoting joint health, and contributing to the development and function of the brain and eyes.

2. Vitamins
Vitamin A: Important for vision, immune function, and skin health.
Vitamin D: Essential for calcium absorption and bone health.
Vitamin E: Acts as an antioxidant, protecting cells from damage.
Vitamin K: Essential for blood clotting and bone health.
B Vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, Folate): Contribute to energy metabolism, nervous system function, and overall well-being.

3. Minerals:
Calcium: Essential for bone and teeth health.
Phosphorus: Works with calcium for bone health, also crucial for energy metabolism.
Potassium: Important for nerve and muscle function, fluid balance.
Magnesium: Supports muscle and nerve function, bone health.
Selenium: Acts as an antioxidant, supports immune function.
Zinc: Essential for immune function, wound healing, and skin health.
Copper: Necessary for iron metabolism, contributes to the formation of connective tissues.

4. Antioxidants:
Astaxanthin: A potent antioxidant found in salmon oil, it helps neutralise free radicals, protecting cells from damage.

5. Essential Fatty Acids:
Omega-6 Fatty Acids: While salmon oil is particularly known for its omega-3 content, it may also contain some omega-6 fatty acids. These fatty acids play a role in skin health, immune function, and hormone production.

6. Protein:
While salmon oil itself is not a significant source of protein, the original source, salmon, is a good-quality protein provider. Protein is essential for muscle development, immune function, and various physiological processes.

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The Disadvantages of Salmon Oil in Dogs

As with everything in life, you can have too much of a good thing (chocolate, cake, crisps etc anyone!) and Salmon Oil is no different for our canine companions.  Salmon Oil has so many fantastic benefits when given in moderation and in the correct amounts, however too much can lead to various unwanted symptoms in your dog.

Caloric Content

Salmon oil is calorie-dense, and excessive supplementation can lead to weight gain or obesity if not factored into the dog's overall caloric intake.

Potential for Rancidity

Omega-3 fatty acids are prone to oxidation, leading to a rancid taste and reduced efficacy. Storing salmon oil improperly or using expired products may expose dogs to rancid oil, which can have negative health effects.

Allergies

Some dogs may be allergic to fish or fish products, leading to adverse reactions such as itching, digestive upset, or skin issues. It's essential to monitor for allergic reactions when introducing salmon oil.

Interactions with Medications

Salmon oil, being a blood thinner due to its omega-3 content, may interact with medications, especially those prescribed for blood clotting disorders. Consulting a veterinarian is crucial, especially for dogs on medication.

Environmental Contaminants

Fish, including salmon, may contain environmental contaminants such as mercury and PCBs. While high-quality salmon oil is purified, sourcing from reputable brands and regions is important to minimise contamination risk.

Overconsumption of Fatty Acids

Excessive intake of omega-3 fatty acids can lead to imbalances with omega-6 fatty acids, potentially disrupting the body's natural inflammatory response.

Too much Vitamin D

Excessive intake of salmon oil or any supplement containing high levels of vitamin D can lead to hypervitaminosis D in dogs. While vitamin D is essential for the regulation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism and plays a crucial role in bone health, an overdose can have adverse effects.

Digestive Upset

Introducing salmon oil too quickly or in excessive amounts may cause digestive upset, including diarrhoea or vomiting. Gradual introduction and appropriate dosages are essential.

Quality Control

Variability in the quality of commercial salmon oil products may affect their nutritional content. Choosing a reliable and well-regulated brand is crucial to ensure the oil's effectiveness and safety.

Potential for Weight Loss

While salmon oil is often recommended for weight gain, excessive amounts may have a laxative effect, potentially leading to weight loss.

It's important to recognise that the disadvantages of salmon oil can often be mitigated through responsible use, proper storage and correct dosing.

Can salmon oil cause pancreatitis?

Salmon oil itself is not a known cause of pancreatitis in dogs. Pancreatitis is the inflammation of the pancreas, an organ that plays a key role in digestion and insulin regulation. It is often associated with dietary factors, particularly the consumption of high-fat meals, but the specific cause can be complex and multifactorial.

However, while salmon oil is generally well-tolerated by most dogs, the high-fat content in any oil, including salmon oil, could potentially contribute to the risk of pancreatitis if given in excessive amounts or if the dog has an underlying sensitivity to dietary fat. Pancreatitis is more commonly associated with the consumption of high-fat meals, especially in cases where dogs ingest a large amount of fatty food, such as table scraps or fatty meats.

References:

  1. A study by Logas, D. & Kunkle, G. A. Double-blinded Crossover Study with Marine Oil Supplementation Containing High-dose icosapentaenoic Acid for the Treatment of Canine Pruritic Skin Disease. Vet. Dermatol. 5, 99‚Äď104 (1994)
  2. Roush, J. K. et al. Evaluation of the effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on weight bearing in dogs with osteoarthritis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 236, 67‚Äď73 (2010).
  3. Freeman, L. M. et al. Nutritional alterations and the effect of fish oil supplementation in dogs with heart failure. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 12, 440‚Äď448 (1998).
  4. Ogilvie, G. K. et al. Effect of fish oil, arginine, and doxorubicin chemotherapy on remission and survival time for dogs with lymphoma: a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled study. Cancer: Interdisciplinary International Journal of the American Cancer Society 88, 1916‚Äď1928 (2000)
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